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Welcome to IP25.co.uk

This page is an online resource designed to highlight the ongoing developments of the 'Ice Proxy' and related highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) diatom lipids for environmental analyses. Please note, this site is no longer being updated.

Click the image to find out more about the source of IP25.
Or, click the link to find out more about the source of the Antarctic sea ice diatom biomarker IPSO25


IP25 in the news

'Polar sea ice leads to more productive oceans - 06.04.2018

'Polar Bears Need Disappearing Sea Ice in More Ways Than One - 08.02.2018

'Melting ice threatens polar bear survival - 23.01.2018

'Disappearing sea ice could lead to collapse of vital polar food chain - 20.12.2017

'Near Threatened' Beluga Whales in Danger as Arctic Sea Ice Shrinks Due to Global Warming - 27.03.2017

Shrinking Arctic sea ice threatens the majestic Beluga whale - 27.03.2017

Six to ten million years ago: Ice-free summers at the North Pole - 08.04.2016

Forskning.no 2014. Har funnet gammel grense for havis i Arktis, 28.11.2014

UiT CAGE, cage.uit.no 2014. Sjøisen i Arktis vokste frem for 2.6 millioner år siden,

Reportclimatescience.com 2014. Study sheds light on prospects for sea ice free Arctic, 28.11.2014

HeritageDaily 2014. The emergence of modern sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, 2.6 million years ago, 28.11.2014

Eurasia Review 2014. Emergence of modern sea ice in Arctic Ocean, 2.6 million years ago, 28.11.2014

Nature World New 2014. Arctic sea ice may completely disappear in our lifetime, 28.11.2014

Science World Report 2014. Arctic sea ice was present for 2.6 million years: Now, it may be disappearing, 28.11.2014

ECOticias.com 2014. El Polo Norte hace 4 milliones de anos apenas tenia hielo, 28.11.2014

ScienceDaily.com 2014. Emergence of modern sea ice in Arctic Ocean, 2.6 million years ago,

techidec.com 2014. Emergence of present day sea ice in Arctic Ocean, 2.6 million years in the past, 29.11.2014,

ScienceNordic 2014. Ancien Arctic sea ice discovery provides the key to future climate prediction, 29.11.2014,

Scientist off to the seas of ice, 16.12.2011,

Arctic muds reveal sea ice record, 15.10.2008,

Timely chemical, 23.03.2008,

Literature list

Below is a non-exhaustive list of publications relating to IP25 and highly branched isoprenoid lipids. Click on the publication to be redirected to the publishers website (links open in new windows).



Bai, Y., M.-A. Sicre, J. Chen, V. Klein, H. Jin, J. Ren, H. Li, B. Xue, Z. Ji, Y. Zhuang and M. Zhao (2019). "Seasonal and spatial variability of sea ice and phytoplankton biomarker flux in the Chukchi sea (western Arctic Ocean)." Progress in Oceanography 171: 22-37.


Andrews, J. T., P. Cabedo-Sanz, A. E. Jennings, S. Ólafsdóttir, S. T. Belt and Á. Geirsdóttir (2018). "Sea ice, ice-rafting, and ocean climate across Denmark Strait during rapid deglaciation (∼16–12 cal ka BP) of the Iceland and East Greenland shelves." Journal of Quaternary Science 33(1): 112-130.

Belt, S. T. (2018). "Source-specific biomarkers as proxies for Arctic and Antarctic sea ice." Organic Geochemistry 125: 277-298.

Belt, S. T. (2018). "What do IP25 and related biomarkers really reveal about sea ice change?" Quaternary Science Reviews 204: 216-219.

Belt, S. T., T. A. Brown, L. Smik, P. Assmy and C. J. Mundy (2018). "Sterol identification in floating Arctic sea ice algal aggregates and the Antarctic sea ice diatom Berkeleya adeliensis." Organic Geochemistry 118: 1-3.

Brown, T. A. (2018). "Stability of the lipid biomarker H-Print within preserved animals." Polar Biology.

Brown, T. A., M. P. Galicia, G. W. Thiemann, S. T. Belt, D. J. Yurkowski and M. G. Dyck (2018). "High contributions of sea ice derived carbon in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissue." PLOS ONE 13(1): e0191631.

Christie, L. (2018). "Understanding How Sea Ice Influences Arctic Deep-Water Food Webs Across a Latitudinal Gradient." 2018 71(4): 6.

Clotten, C., R. Stein, K. Fahl and S. De Schepper (2018). "Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907)." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 481: 61-72.

Detlef, H., S. T. Belt, S. M. Sosdian, L. Smik, C. H. Lear, I. R. Hall, P. Cabedo-Sanz, K. Husum and S. Kender (2018). "Sea ice dynamics across the Mid-Pleistocene transition in the Bering Sea." Nature Communications 9(1): 941.

Hörner, T., R. Stein and K. Fahl (2018). "Paleo-sea ice distribution and polynya variability on the Kara Sea shelf during the last 12 ka." arktos 4(1): 6.

Knies, J., D. Köseoğlu, L. Rise, N. Baeten, V. K. Bellec, R. Bøe, M. Klug, G. Panieri, P. E. Jernas and S. T. Belt (2018). "Nordic Seas polynyas and their role in preconditioning marine productivity during the Last Glacial Maximum." Nature Communications 9(1): 3959.

Kolling, H. M., R. Stein, K. Fahl, K. Perner and M. Moros (2018). "New insights into sea ice changes over the past 2.2 kyr in Disko Bugt, West Greenland." arktos 4(1): 11.

Köseoğlu, D., S. T. Belt, K. Husum and J. Knies (2018). "An assessment of biomarker-based multivariate classification methods versus the PIP25 index for paleo Arctic sea ice reconstruction." Organic Geochemistry.

Köseoğlu, D., S. T. Belt, L. Smik, H. Yao, G. Panieri and J. Knies (2018). "Complementary biomarker-based methods for characterising Arctic sea ice conditions: A case study comparison between multivariate analysis and the PIP25 index." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 222(Supplement C): 406-420.

Kremer, A., R. Stein, K. Fahl, H. Bauch, A. Mackensen and F. Niessen (2018). "A 190-ka biomarker record revealing interactions between sea ice, Atlantic Water inflow and ice sheet activity in eastern Fram Strait." arktos 4(1): 22.

Kremer, A., R. Stein, K. Fahl, Z. Ji, Z. Yang, S. Wiers, J. Matthiessen, M. Forwick, L. Löwemark, M. O'Regan, J. Chen and I. Snowball (2018). "Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka – Reconstructions from biomarker records." Quaternary Science Reviews 182: 93-108.

Lars Max, Lukas Belz, Ralf Tiedemann, Kirsten Fahl, Dirk Nürnberg and J.-R. Riethdorf; (2014). "Rapid shifts in subarctic Pacific climate between 138 and 70 ka." Geology 42(10): 899-902.

Limoges, A., G. Massé, K. Weckström, M. Poulin, M. Ellegaard, M. Heikkilä, N.-X. Geilfus, M. K. Sejr, S. Rysgaard and S. Ribeiro (2018). "Spring Succession and Vertical Export of Diatoms and IP25 in a Seasonally Ice-Covered High Arctic Fjord." Frontiers in Earth Science 6(226).

Max, L., J. R. Riethdorf, R. Tiedemann, M. Smirnova, L. Lembke‐Jene, K. Fahl, D. Nürnberg, A. Matul and G. Mollenhauer (2012). "Sea surface temperature variability and sea‐ice extent in the subarctic northwest Pacific during the past 15,000 years." Paleoceanography 27(3).

Kremer, A., R. Stein, K. Fahl, Z. Ji, Z. Yang, S. Wiers, J. Matthiessen, M. Forwick, L. Löwemark, M. O'Regan, J. Chen and I. Snowball (2018). "Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka – Reconstructions from biomarker records." Quaternary Science Reviews 182: 93-108.

Limoges, A., S. Ribeiro, K. Weckström, M. Heikkilä, K. Zamelczyk, T. J. Andersen, P. Tallberg, G. Massé, S. Rysgaard, N. Nørgaard‐Pedersen and M. S. Seidenkrantz (2018). "Linking the Modern Distribution of Biogenic Proxies in High Arctic Greenland Shelf Sediments to Sea Ice, Primary Production, and Arctic‐Atlantic Inflow." Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.

Lo, L., S. T. Belt, J. Lattaud, T. Friedrich, C. Zeeden, S. Schouten, L. Smik, A. Timmermann, P. Cabedo-Sanz, J.-J. Huang, L. Zhou, T.-H. Ou, Y.-P. Chang, L.-C. Wang, Y.-M. Chou, C.-C. Shen, M.-T. Chen, K.-Y. Wei, S.-R. Song, T.-H. Fang, S. A. Gorbarenko, W.-L. Wang, T.-Q. Lee, H. Elderfield and D. A. Hodell (2018). "Precession and atmospheric CO2 modulated variability of sea ice in the central Okhotsk Sea since 130,000 years ago." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 488: 36-45.

Méheust, M., R. Stein, K. Fahl and R. Gersonde (2018). "Sea-ice variability in the subarctic North Pacific and adjacent Bering Sea during the past 25 ka: new insights from IP25 and Uk′37 proxy records." arktos 4(1): 8.

Rontani. J.-F., A. Aubert, C. and Belt. S. T. (2018). "Electron ionization mass spectrometry fragmentation and multiple reaction monitoring quantification of bacterial metabolites of the sea ice biomarker proxy IP25 in Arctic sediments." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 32(10): 775-783.

Rontani, J.-F., S. T. Belt and R. Amiraux (2018). "Biotic and abiotic degradation of the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 and selected algal sterols in near-surface Arctic sediments." Organic Geochemistry 118: 73-88.

Schmidt, K., T. A. Brown, S. T. Belt, L. C. Ireland, K. W. R. Taylor, S. E. Thorpe, P. Ward and A. Atkinson (2018). "Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25." Biogeosciences 15(7): 1987-2006.


Belt S.T., Brown T.A., Smik L, Tatarek A, Wiktor J, Stowasser G, Assmy P, C, A. and K, H. (2017) Identification of C25 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes in diatoms of the genus Rhizosolenia in polar and sub-polar marine phytoplankton. Org Geochem, 110:65-72.

Berben, S. M. P., Husum, K., Navarro-Rodriguez, A., Belt, S. T. and Aagaard-Sørensen, S. (2017) Semi-quantitative reconstruction of early to late Holocene spring and summer sea ice conditions in the northern Barents Sea. Journal of Quaternary Science. 32(5): 587-603.

Brown, T., Assmy, P., Hop, H., Wold, A. and Belt, S. (2017) Transfer of ice algae carbon to ice-associated amphipods in the high-Arctic pack ice environment. J Plankton Res, 39(4):664-674.

Brown T.A. and S.T. Belt (2017) Biomarker-based H-Print quantifies the composition of mixed sympagic and pelagic algae consumed by Artemia sp. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 488:32-37

Brown, T. A., E. Chrystal, S. H. Ferguson, D. J. Yurkowski, C. Watt, N. E. Hussey, T. C. Kelley and S. T. Belt (2017). "Coupled changes between the H-Print biomarker and δ15N indicates a variable sea ice carbon contribution to the diet of Cumberland Sound beluga whales." Limnology and Oceanography, 62(4):1606-1619

Darby, D. A., J. T. Andrews, S. T. Belt, A. E. Jennings and P. Cabedo-Sanz (2017). "Holocene Cyclic Records of Ice-Rafted Debris and Sea Ice Variations on the East Greenland and Northwest Iceland Margins." Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 49(4): 649-672.

Hörner, T., R. Stein and K. Fahl (2017). "Evidence for Holocene centennial variability in sea ice cover based on IP25 biomarker reconstruction in the southern Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)." Geo-Marine Letters: 37(5): 515-526.

Jennings, A. E., J. T. Andrews, C. Ó. Cofaigh, G. St-Onge, S. Belt, P. Cabedo-Sanz, C. Pearce, C. Hillaire-Marcel and D. Calvin Campbell (2017). "Baffin Bay paleoenvironments in the LGM and HS1: Resolving the ice-shelf question." Marine Geology.

Kremer A, Stein R, Fahl K, Ji Z, Yang Z, Wiers S, et al. Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka – Reconstructions from biomarker records. Quat Sci Rev. 2018;182:93-108. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.12.016.y.

Köseoğlu D, Belt ST, Smik L, Yao H, Panieri G, Knies J. Complementary biomarker-based methods for characterising Arctic sea ice conditions: A case study comparison between multivariate analysis and the PIP25 index. Geochim Cosmochim Ac. 2018;222(Supplement C):406-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2017.11.001.

Jong-Ku, G., K. Jung-Hyun, S. Lukas, H. Sun Yong, T. B. Simon, N. Seung-Il and S. Kyung-Hoon (2017). "Distribution of pelagic phytoplankton-derived lipid biomarkers along a transect from the East Sea to the Bering Sea : insights into their suitability as open-water indicators." Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 53(4): 545-554.

Kolling, H. M., Stein, R., Fahl, K., Perner, K. and Moros, M. (2017) Short-term variability in late Holocene sea ice cover on the East Greenland Shelf and its driving mechanisms. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 485(1): 336-350.

Pieńkowski, A. J., Gill, N. K., Furze, M. F., Mugo, S. M., Marret, F. and Perreaux, A. (2016) Arctic sea-ice proxies: Comparisons between biogeochemical and micropalaeontological reconstructions in a sediment archive from Arctic Canada. Holocene, 0, 0959683616670466.

Ribeiro, S., M. K. Sejr, A. Limoges, M. Heikkilä, T. J. Andersen, P. Tallberg, K. Weckström, K. Husum, M. Forwick, T. Dalsgaard, G. Massé, M.-S. Seidenkrantz and S. Rysgaard (2017). "Sea ice and primary production proxies in surface sediments from a High Arctic Greenland fjord: Spatial distribution and implications for palaeoenvironmental studies." Ambio 46(1): 106-118.

Ruan, J., Y. Huang, X. Shi, Y. Liu, W. Xiao and Y. Xu (2017). "Holocene variability in sea surface temperature and sea ice extent in the northern Bering Sea: A multiple biomarker study." Organic Geochemistry 113.

Smik, L. and Belt, S. T. (2017) Distributions of the Arctic sea ice biomarker proxy IP25 and two phytoplanktonic biomarkers in surface sediments from West Svalbard. Org Geochem, 105, 39-41.

Stein, R., K. Fahl, P. Gierz, F. Niessen and G. Lohmann (2017). "Arctic Ocean sea ice cover during the penultimate glacial and the last interglacial." Nature Communications 8(1): 373..

Stein, R., K. Fahl, I. Schade, A. Manerung, S. Wassmuth, F. Niessen and S.-I. Nam (2017). "Holocene variability in sea ice cover, primary production, and Pacific-Water inflow and climate change in the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas (Arctic Ocean)." Journal of Quaternary Science: 32(3): 362-379.

Tesi, T., M. C. Geibel, C. Pearce, E. Panova, J. E. Vonk, E. Karlsson, J. A. Salvado, M. Kruså, L. Bröder, C. Humborg, I. Semiletov and Ö. Gustafsson (2017). "Carbon geochemistry of plankton-dominated samples in the Laptev and East Siberian shelves: contrasts in suspended particle composition." Ocean Sci. 13(5): 735-748.

Xiao, X., Zhao, M., Knudsen, K. L., Sha, L., Eiríksson, J., Gudmundsdóttir, E., Jiang, H. and Guo, Z. (2017) Deglacial and Holocene sea–ice variability north of Iceland and response to ocean circulation changes. Earth Planet Sc Lett, 472, 14-24.

Zhang, Y., Su, Y., Liu, Z., Yu, J. and Jin, M. (2017) Lipid biomarker evidence for determining the origin and distribution of organic matter in surface sediments of Lake Taihu, Eastern China. Ecological Indicators, 77, 397-408.


Belt, S. T., L. Smik, T. A. Brown, J. H. Kim, S. J. Rowland, C. S. Allen, J. K. Gal, K. H. Shin, J. I. Lee, and K. W. R. Taylor. 2016. Source identification and distribution reveals the potential of the geochemical Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25. Nature Communications. 7: 12655.

Brown, T. A., and S. T. Belt. 2016. Novel tri- and tetra-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes from the marine diatom Pleurosigma intermedium. Organic Geochemistry. 91: 120-122.

Brown, T. A., S. T. Belt, M. Gosselin, M. Levasseur, M. Poulin, and C. J. Mundy. 2016. Quantitative estimates of sinking sea ice particulate organic carbon based on the biomarker IP25. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 546: 17-29.

Cabedo-Sanz, P., and S. T. Belt. 2016. Seasonal sea ice variability in eastern Fram Strait over the last 2000 years. arktos. 2: 1-12.

Cabedo Sanz, P., S. T. Belt, A. E. Jennings, J. T. Andrews, and Á. Geirsdóttir. 2016. Variability in drift ice export from the Arctic Ocean to the North Icelandic Shelf over the last 8000 years: A multi-proxy evaluation. Quaternary Science Reviews. 146: 99-115.

Cabedo Sanz, P., L. Smik, and S. T. Belt. 2016. On the stability of various highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) lipids in stored sediments and sediment extracts. Organic Geochemistry. 97: 74-77.

Campagne, P., X. Crosta, S. Schmidt, M. Noëlle Houssais, O. Ther, and G. Massé. 2016. Sedimentary response to sea ice and atmospheric variability over the instrumental period off Adélie Land, East Antarctica. Biogeosciences. 13: 4205-4218.

Cormier, M.-A., A. Rochon, A. de Vernal and Y. Gélinas (2016). "Multi-proxy study of primary production and paleoceanographical conditions in northern Baffin Bay during the last centuries." Marine Micropaleontology 127: 1-10.

Hoff, U., T. L. Rasmussen, R. Stein, M. M. Ezat, and K. Fahl. 2016. Sea ice and millennial-scale climate variability in the Nordic seas 90[thinsp]kyr ago to present. Nat Commun. 7.

Hörner, T., R. Stein, K. Fahl, and D. Birgel. 2016. Post-glacial variability of sea ice cover, river run-off and biological production in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) – A high-resolution biomarker study. Quaternary Science Reviews. 143: 133-149.

He, D., B. R. T. Simoneit, Y. Xu, and R. Jaffé. 2016. Occurrence of unsaturated C25 highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) in a freshwater wetland. Organic Geochemistry. 93: 59-67.

Kaiser, J., S. T. Belt, M. Tomczak, T. A. Brown, N. Wasmund, and H. W. Arz. 2016. C25 highly branched isoprenoid alkenes in the Baltic Sea produced by the marine planktonic diatom Pseudosolenia calcar-avis. Organic Geochemistry. 93: 51-58.

Knies, J., I. Pathirana, P. Cabedo-Sanz, A. Banica, K. Fabian, T. L. Rasmussen, M. Forwick and S. T. Belt (2016). "Sea-ice dynamics in an Arctic coastal polynya during the past 6500 years." arktos 3(1): 1.

Lalande, C., E.-M. Nöthig, E. Bauerfeind, K. Hardge, A. Beszczynska-Möller, and K. Fahl. 2016. Lateral supply and downward export of particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 114: 78-89.

Polyak, L., S. T. Belt, P. Cabedo-Sanz, M. Yamamoto, and Y.-H. Park. 2016. Holocene sea-ice conditions and circulation at the Chukchi-Alaskan margin, Arctic Ocean, inferred from biomarker proxies. The Holocene..

Rontani, J.-F., S. T. Belt, T. A. Brown, R. Amiraux, M. Gosselin, F. Vaultier, and C. J. Mundy. 2016. Monitoring abiotic degradation in sinking versus suspended Arctic sea ice algae during a spring ice melt using specific lipid oxidation tracers. Organic Geochemistry. 98: 82-97.

Smik, L., P. Cabedo-Sanz, and S. T. Belt. 2016. Semi-quantitative estimates of paleo Arctic sea ice concentration based on source-specific highly branched isoprenoid alkenes: A further development of the PIP25 index. Organic Geochemistry. 92: 63-69.

Smik, L., S. T. Belt, J. L. Lieser, L. K. Armand, and A. Leventer. 2016. Distributions of highly branched isoprenoid alkenes and other algal lipids in surface waters from East Antarctica: Further insights for biomarker-based paleo sea-ice reconstruction. Organic Geochemistry. 95: 71-80.

Smik, L., P. Cabedo-Sanz, and S. T. Belt. 2016. Semi-quantitative estimates of paleo Arctic sea ice concentration based on source-specific highly branched isoprenoid alkenes: A further development of the PIP25 index. Organic Geochemistry. 92: 63-69.

Stein, R., K. Fahl, M. Schreck, G. Knorr, F. Niessen, M. Forwick, C. Gebhardt, L. Jensen, M. Kaminski, A. Kopf, J. Matthiessen, W. Jokat, and G. Lohmann. 2016. Evidence for ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean. Nat Commun. 7.


Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P (2015) Characterisation and isomerisation of mono- and di-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes: considerations for palaeoenvironment studies. Org Geochem 87:55-67.

Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P, Smik L, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Berben SMP, Knies J, Husum K (2015) Identification of paleo Arctic winter sea ice limits and the marginal ice zone: Optimised biomarker-based reconstructions of late Quaternary Arctic sea ice. Earth Planet Sc Lett 431:127-139.

Brown TA, Hegseth EN, Belt ST (2015) A biomarker-based investigation of the mid-winter ecosystem in Rijpfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biol. Polar Biol 38:37-50

Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST (2015) Identification and characterisation of a novel mono-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene in ancient Arctic sediments. Org Geochem 81:34-39

Campagne P, Crosta X, Houssais MN, Swingedouw D, Schmidt S, Martin A, Devred E, Capo S, Marieu V, Closset I, Massé G (2015) Glacial ice and atmospheric forcing on the Mertz Glacier Polynya over the past 250 years. Nat Commun 6.

Ferriols, V. M. E. N., R. Yaginuma, M. Adachi, K. Takada, S. Matsunaga, and S. Okada. 2015. Cloning and characterization of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from the highly branched isoprenoid producing diatom Rhizosolenia setigera. Scientific Reports. 5: 10246.

Méheust, M., R. Stein, K. Fahl, L. Max, and J.-R. Riethdorf. 2015. High-resolution IP25-based reconstruction of sea-ice variability in the western North Pacific and Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years. Geo-Marine Letters. 1-11.

Muschitiello F, Andersson A, Wohlfarth B, Smittenberg RH (2015) The C20 highly branched isoprenoid biomarker – A new diatom-sourced proxy for summer trophic conditions? Org Geochem 81:27-33

Saunders, C. J., M. Gao, and R. Jaffé. 2015. Environmental assessment of vegetation and hydrological conditions in Everglades freshwater marshes using multiple geochemical proxies. Aquatic Sciences. 77: 271-291.

Xiao, X., R. Stein, and K. Fahl. 2015. MIS 3 to MIS 1 temporal and LGM spatial variability in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: Reconstruction from biomarkers. Paleoceanography. 30: 969-983.

Xiao X, Fahl K, Müller J, Stein R (2015) Sea-ice distribution in the modern Arctic Ocean: Biomarker records from trans-Arctic Ocean surface sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 155:16-29


Berben SMP, Husum K, Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST (2014) Holocene sub-centennial evolution of Atlantic water inflow and sea ice distribution in the western Barents Sea. Clim Past 10 (1):181-198. doi:10.5194/cp-10-181-2014

Brown TA, Alexander C, Yurkowski DJ, Ferguson S, Belt ST (2014) Identifying variable sea ice carbon contributions to the Arctic ecosystem: A case study using highly branched isoprenoid lipid biomarkers in Cumberland Sound ringed seals. Limnol Oceanogr 59 (5):1581-1589. doi:10.4319/lo.2014.59.5.1581

Brown TA, Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P (2014) Identification of a novel di-unsaturated C25 highly branched isoprenoid in the marine tube-dwelling diatom Berkeleya rutilans. Environ Chem Lett:1-6. doi:10.1007/s10311-014-0472-4

Brown TA, Belt ST, Tatarek A, Mundy CJ (2014) Source identification of the Arctic sea ice proxy IP25. Nature Communications 5. doi:10.1038/ncomms5197

Brown TA, Yurkowski DJ, Ferguson SH, Alexander C, Belt ST (2014) H-Print: a new chemical fingerprinting approach for distinguishing primary production sources in Arctic ecosystems. Environ Chem Lett:1-6. doi:10.1007/s10311-014-0459-1

Goutte, A., Charrassin, J. B., Cherel, Y., Carravieri, A., De Grissac, S. & Masse, G. 2014. Importance of ice algal production for top predators: new insights using sea-ice biomarkers. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 513:269-75.

Goutte A, Cherel Y, Ozouf-Costaz C, Robineau C, Lanshere J, Massé G (2014) Contribution of sea ice organic matter in the diet of Antarctic fishes: a diatom-specific highly branched isoprenoid approach. Polar Biol 37 (7):903-910. doi:10.1007/s00300-014-1489-7

Knies, J., Cabedo-Sanz, P., Belt, S. T., Baranwal, S., Fietz, S. & Rosell-Melé, A. 2014. The emergence of modern sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Nature Communications (Accepted).

Max, L., Belz, L., Tiedemann, R., Fahl, K., Nürnberg, D. & Riethdorf, J.-R. 2014. Rapid shifts in subarctic Pacific climate between 138 and 70 ka. Geology 42:899-902.

Müller, J. & Stein, R. 2014. High-resolution record of late glacial and deglacial sea ice changes in Fram Strait corroborates ice–ocean interactions during abrupt climate shifts. Earth Planet Sc Lett 403:446-55.

Navaro-Rodreguez, A. 2014. Reconstruction of recent and palaeo sea ice conditions in the Barents Sea. PhD thesis, University of Plymouth.

Panizzo V, Crespin J, Crosta X, Shemesh A, Massé G, Yam R, Mattielli N, Cardinal D (2014) Sea ice diatom contributions to Holocene nutrient utilization in East Antarctica. Paleoceanography:2014PA002609. doi:10.1002/2014pa002609

Pearce, C., Seidenkrantz, M.-S., Kuijpers, A. & Reynisson, N. F. 2014. A multi-proxy reconstruction of oceanographic conditions around the Younger Dryas–Holocene transition in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. Marine Micropaleontology 112:39-49.

Rontani, J.-F., Belt, S. T., Brown, T. A. & Aubert, C. 2014. Electron ionization mass spectrometry fragmentation pathways of trimethylsilyl derivatives of isomeric allylic alcohols derived from HBI alkene oxidation. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 28:1937-47.

Rontani JF, Belt ST, Vaultier F, Brown TA, Massé G (2014) Autoxidative and Photooxidative Reactivity of Highly Branched Isoprenoid (HBI) Alkenes. Lipids 49 (5):481-494. doi:10.1007/s11745-014-3891-x

Rontani J-F, Belt ST, Brown TA, Vaultier F, Mundy CJ (2014) Sequential photo- and autoxidation of diatom lipids in Arctic sea ice. Org Geochem 77 (0):59-71.


Abram NJ, Wolff EW, Curran MAJ (2013) A review of sea ice proxy information from polar ice cores. Quat Sci Rev 79:168-183. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.01.011

Alonso-García M, Andrews JT, Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P, Darby D, Jaeger J (2013) A comparison between multiproxy and historical data (ad 1990–1840) of drift ice conditions on the East Greenland Shelf (~66°N). Holocene 23 (12):1672-1683. doi:10.1177/0959683613505343

Barbara L, Crosta X, Schmidt S, Massé G (2013) Diatoms and biomarkers evidence for major changes in sea ice conditions prior the instrumental period in Antarctic Peninsula. Quat Sci Rev 79:99-110. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.07.021

Belt ST, Brown TA, Ampel L, Cabedo-Sanz P, Fahl K, Kocis JJ, Massé G, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Ruan J, Xu Y (2013) An inter-laboratory investigation of the Arctic sea ice biomarker proxy IP25 in marine sediments: key outcomes and recommendations. Clim Past Discuss 9 (5):5263-5298. doi:10.5194/cpd-9-5263-2013

Belt ST, Brown TA, Ringrose AE, Cabedo-Sanz P, Mundy CJ, Gosselin M, Poulin M (2013) Quantitative measurement of the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 and sterols in Arctic sea ice and underlying sediments: further considerations for palaeo sea ice reconstruction. Org Geochem 62:33-45. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2013.07.002

Belt ST, Müller J (2013) The Arctic sea ice biomarker IP25: a review of current understanding, recommendations for future research and applications in palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev 79:9-25. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.12.001

Brown TA, Belt ST, Ferguson SH, Yurkowski DJ, Davison NJ, Barnett JEF, Jepson PD (2013) Identification of the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 and related lipids in marine mammals: A potential method for investigating regional variations in dietary sources within higher trophic level marine systems. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 441:99-104. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.01.020

Brown TA, Bicknell AWJ, Votier SC, Belt ST (2013) Novel molecular fingerprinting of marine avian diet provides a tool for gaining insights into feeding ecology. Environ Chem Lett 11 (3):283-288. doi:10.1007/s10311-013-0402-x

Cabedo Sanz, P. 2013. Identification of variability in sub-arctic sea ice conditions during the Younger Dryas and Holocene. PhD thesis, University of Plymouth.

Cabedo-Sanz P, Belt ST, Knies J, Husum K (2013) Identification of contrasting seasonal sea ice conditions during the Younger Dryas. Quat Sci Rev 79:74-86. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.10.028

Collins LG, Allen CS, Pike J, Hodgson DA, Weckström K, Massé G (2013) Evaluating highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers as a novel Antarctic sea-ice proxy in deep ocean glacial age sediments. Quat Sci Rev 79:87-98. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.02.004

Goutte A, Cherel Y, Houssais M-N, Klein V, Ozouf-Costaz C, Raccurt M, Robineau C, Massé G (2013) Diatom-Specific Highly Branched Isoprenoids as Biomarkers in Antarctic Consumers. PLoS ONE 8 (2):e56504. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056504

Huc, A. Y. 2013. Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels: From Conventional to Unconventional Hydrocarbon Systems. Editions Technip.

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Navarro-Rodriguez A, Belt ST, Knies J, Brown TA (2013) Mapping recent sea ice conditions in the Barents Sea using the proxy biomarker IP25: implications for palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev 79:26-39. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.11.025

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Pisani, O., J. W. Louda, and R. Jaffé. 2013. Biomarker assessment of spatial and temporal changes in the composition of flocculent material (floc) in the subtropical wetland of the Florida Coastal Everglades. Environmental Chemistry. 10: 424-436.

Pisani, O., J. W. Louda, and R. Jaffé. 2013. Biomarker assessment of spatial and temporal changes in the composition of flocculent material (floc) in the subtropical wetland of the Florida Coastal Everglades. Environmental Chemistry. 10: 424-436.

Stein R, Fahl K (2013) Biomarker proxy shows potential for studying the entire Quaternary Arctic sea ice history. Org Geochem 55:98. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.11.005

Stoynova V, Shanahan TM, Hughen KA, de Vernal A (2013) Insights into Circum-Arctic sea ice variability from molecular geochemistry. Quat Sci Rev 79:63-73. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.10.006

Vancoppenolle M, Meiners KM, Michel C, Bopp L, Brabant F, Carnat G, Delille B, Lannuzel D, Madec G, Moreau S, Tison J-L, van der Merwe P (2013) Role of sea ice in global biogeochemical cycles: emerging views and challenges. Quat Sci Rev 79:207-230. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.04.011

Weckström K, Massé G, Collins LG, Hanhijärvi S, Bouloubassi I, Sicre M-A, Seidenkrantz M-S, Schmidt S, Andersen TJ, Andersen ML, Hill B, Kuijpers A (2013) Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea. Quat Sci Rev 79:53-62. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.02.012

Xiao X, Fahl K, Stein R (2013) Biomarker distributions in surface sediments from the Kara and Laptev seas (Arctic Ocean): indicators for organic-carbon sources and sea-ice coverage. Quat Sci Rev 79:40-52. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.11.028


Belt S, Brown T, Cabedo Sanz P, Navarro Rodriguez A (2012) Structural confirmation of the sea ice biomarker IP25 found in Arctic marine sediments. Environ Chem Lett 10:189-192. doi:10.1007/s10311-011-0344-0

Belt ST, Brown TA, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Cabedo-Sanz P, Tonkin A, Ingle R (2012) A reproducible method for the extraction, identification and quantification of the Arctic sea ice proxy IP25 from marine sediments. Anal Methods 4:705-713. doi:10.1039/C2AY05728J

Brown T, Belt S (2012) Identification of the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25 in Arctic benthic macrofauna: direct evidence for a sea ice diatom diet in Arctic heterotrophs. Polar Biol 35 (1):131-137. doi:10.1007/s00300-011-1045-7

Brown T, Belt S, Piepenburg D (2012) Evidence for a pan-Arctic sea-ice diatom diet in Strongylocentrotus spp. Polar Biol 35 (8):1281-1287. doi:10.1007/s00300-012-1164-9

Brown TA, Belt ST (2012) Closely linked sea ice–pelagic coupling in the Amundsen Gulf revealed by the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25. J Plankton Res 34:647-654. doi:10.1093/plankt/fbs045

Fahl K, Stein R (2012) Modern seasonal variability and deglacial/Holocene change of central Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover: New insights from biomarker proxy records. Earth Planet Sc Lett 351–352 (0):123-133. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.07.009

Müller J, Werner K, Stein R, Fahl K, Moros M, Jansen E (2012) Holocene cooling culminates in sea ice oscillations in Fram Strait. Quat Sci Rev 47 (0):1-14. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.04.024

Stein, R., and K. Fahl. 2012. A first southern Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic Ocean) 60 ka IP25 sea-ice record. Polarforschung. 82: 83-86.

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Brown T, Belt ST, Philippe B, Mundy CJ, Massé G, Poulin M, Gosselin M (2011) Temporal and vertical variations of lipid biomarkers during a bottom ice diatom bloom in the Canadian Beaufort Sea: further evidence for the use of the IP25 biomarker as a proxy for spring Arctic sea ice. Polar Biol 34 (12):1857-1868. doi:10.1007/s00300-010-0942-5

Brown TA (2011) Production and preservation of the Arctic sea ice diatom biomarker IP25. PhD Thesis. University of Plymouth, Plymouth

Massé G, Belt ST, Crosta X, Schmidt S, Snape I, Thomas DN, Rowland SJ (2011) Highly branched isoprenoids as proxies for variable sea ice conditions in the Southern Ocean Antarctic Science 23:487-498. doi:10.1017/S0954102011000381

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Rontani J-F, Belt ST, Vaultier F, Brown TA (2011) Visible light induced photo-oxidation of highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes: Significant dependence on the number and nature of double bonds. Org Geochem 42 (7):812-822

Zhang Y, Sun Y, Xie L, Jiang A, Chai P (2011) The occurrence and significance of C25HBI in Cenozoic saline lacustrine source rocks from the Western Qaidam Basin, NW China. Chin Sci Bull 56 (13):1390-1398.


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Barbara L, Crosta X, Massé G, Ther O (2010) Deglacial environments in eastern Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Quat Sci Rev 29 (19-20):2731-2740. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.027

Belt ST, Vare LL, Massé G, Manners H, Price J, MacLachlan S, Andrews JT, Schmidt S (2010) Striking similarities in temporal changes to seasonal sea ice conditions across the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the last 7,000 years. Quat Sci Rev 29 (25-26):3489-3504. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.041

Denis D, Crosta X, Barbara L, Massé G, Renssen H, Ther O, Giraudeau J (2010) Sea ice and wind variability during the Holocene in East Antarctica: insight on middle–high latitude coupling. Quat Sci Rev 29 (27-28):3709-3719. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.08.007

Gregory TR, Smart CW, Hart MB, Massé G, Vare LL, Belt ST (2010) Holocene palaeoecology and dissolution of foraminifera in Barrow Strait. Journal of Quaternary Science 25 (6):903-910

Mckirdy, D. M., C. S. Thorpe, D. E. Haynes, K. Grice, E. S. Krull, G. P. Halverson, and L. J. Webster. 2010. The biogeochemical evolution of the Coorong during the mid- to late Holocene: An elemental, isotopic and biomarker perspective. Organic Geochemistry. 41: 96-110.

Vare LL, Massé G, Belt ST (2010) A biomarker-based reconstruction of sea ice conditions for the Barents Sea in recent centuries. Holocene 20:637-643. doi:10.1177/0959683609355179


Andrews, J. T., Belt, S. T., Olafsdottir, S., Massé, G. & Vare, L. L. 2009. Sea ice and marine climate variability for NW Iceland/Denmark Strait over the last 2000 cal. yr BP. Holocene 19:775-84.

Müller J, Massé G, Stein R, Belt ST (2009) Variability of sea-ice conditions in the Fram Strait over the past 30,000 years. Nat Geosci 2 (11):772-776

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Belt ST, Massé G, Vare LL, Rowland SJ, Poulin M, Sicre M-A, Sampei M, Fortier L (2008) Distinctive 13C isotopic signature distinguishes a novel sea ice biomarker in Arctic sediments and sediment traps. Mar Chem 112 (3-4):158-167. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2008.09.002

Massé G, Rowland SJ, Sicre M-A, Jacob J, Jansen E, Belt ST (2008) Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: Evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions. Earth Planet Sc Lett 269 (3-4):565-569. doi:doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.017


Atahan, P., K. Grice, and J. Dodson. 2007. Agriculture and environmental change at Qingpu, Yangtze delta region, China: a biomarker, stable isotope and palynological approach. The Holocene. 17: 507-515.

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